• directed graph math
    Mathematics

    Strictly Monotone Weight Functions on Directed Graphs

      OUTLINE Introduction General Definitions When can any weight function be turned into a strictly monotone weight function? Weighted Directed Graphs in Applications Autonomous Driving Quantum Walks Artificial Neural Networks   SUMMARY: We define a directed graph as a space with any binary relation, and we define a strictly monotone weight function on any directed graph. We prove when no weight function on a directed graph can be turned into a strictly monotone weight function, and we give a characterization of any strictly monotone weight function. Finally, we mention the use of weighted directed graphs in autonomous driving research, quantum information, and deep learning.    Introduction Here is an example…

  • Two Notions of an Infinite Chain in a Directed Graph
    Mathematics

    Two Notions of an Infinite Chain in a Directed Graph

      OUTLINE Introduction Definitions Directed Graphs Infinite Chains (Def. 1 & Def. 2) When are Def. 1 and Def. 2 equivalent? A fix with the axiom of countable choice Directed Graphs in Applications Softwares Graph Neural Networks Quantum Information   SUMMARY: We introduce two notions of an infinite chain in a directed graph, and we show when these two notions are equivalent. We then mention the use of directed graphs in applications, such as artificial intelligence and quantum information. Introduction Consider this diagram \[ \begin{array}{ccccc} \bullet & \rightarrow & \bullet\\ \downarrow & & \downarrow\\ \bullet & \rightarrow & \bullet & \rightarrow & \bullet \end{array} \] which consists of vertices (the dots)…

  • The Tensor Product: from vector spaces to categories
    Mathematics

    The Tensor Product: from vector spaces to categories

      OUTLINE Introduction General Definition The tensor product is not the same as the Cartesian product A jump to categories Applications TensorFlow Artificial Intelligence Quantum Optics   SUMMARY: We show why the tensor product is not the same as the Cartesian product, and we extend that result to categories. We then mention the use of the tensor product in applications, such as artificial intelligence and quantum optics. Introduction For any vectors $\left\langle x_{1},x_{2}\right\rangle $ of $\mathbb{R}^{2}$ and $\left\langle y_{1},y_{2},y_{3}\right\rangle $ of $\mathbb{R}^{3}$, a product of these two vectors, which is denoted as $\left\langle x_{1},x_{2}\right\rangle \otimes\left\langle y_{1},y_{2},y_{3}\right\rangle $, is defined as the matrix \[ \left[\begin{array}{ccc} x_{1}y_{1} & x_{1}y_{2} & x_{1}y_{_{3}}\\ x_{2}y_{1} &…

  • Reasons for Math
    Mathematics

    Why Math?

    You may have had bad memories from mathematics at school, or maybe you liked it and stayed curious about it or even work in a related field. But in any case, you may ask yourselves: why research in mathematics is important? You may think that we already know all we need to know in mathematics as we are already able, for instance, to make the sophisticated computations required to successfully send a rocket into space to explore other planets. You might be surprised, but continuing research in mathematics can and will change our lives. And even save lots of human beings. How could mathematics save lives? A few years ago,…